【检验美国高中生英文水平的100个单词】词源解析之二

  • 袁新民博士
  • 2016-07-24 20:29
  • 阅读 41357 评论 0 分享 0 喜欢 2

上次的“词源解析一”的链接为:【检验美国高中生英文水平的100个单词】词源解析之一,如果还没有完整看过这 “据说”是【检验美国高中生水平的100个单词】的朋友,先检验一下自己认识多少个,可先点击链接:传说的“检验美国高中生水平的100个单词”

有些词看起来很难,但只要把它打回“原形”,就简单了,如:

17. feckless 英 ['feklɪs] 美 ['fɛkləs]

(这个词是 effectless 的缩写,即 feck = effect,ef-出,fect做;做出的→做出的就会有→效应,影响,结果,效果,作用;-less无…的;没有影响、没有作用的、没有价值的→)

a. having a weak character; not behaving in a responsible way 品格差的,不负责任的,没出息的

Her husband was a charming, but lazy and feckless man.

He regarded the young man as feckless and irresponsible.


relax 里的 lax 来自拉丁语“laxare 放宽,放松”,laxare 也是法语 laisser(让,任,不管,不过问,丢下,离开)的来源,laisser 的祈使语气动词的第二人称复数是 laissez

affair 是“事务;事情;事”,其中的 fair 就是 faire ‘ do’

factory 是很好理解的简单词。

法语 faire 里,-re是动词不定式后缀,faire来自拉丁语 facere,即 faire 里的 fa 相当于词根 fac “做”。

18. laissez faire 英 [leiˈseiˈfeər] 美 [ˌlɛseˈfɛr]

laissez 让,允许,不过问,faire 做;放开让做→)

n. [U] (from French) the policy of allowing private businesses to develop without government control (政府对私有商业的)自由放任主义

a. of, pertaining to, or conforming to the principles or practices of laissez faire. 自由放任的


知道什么是“第二”second吗?它当然是“跟随”在第一之后,sec是词根。

soccer是怎么来的?它来自association football,是 association 中的assoc变形后加上-er构成的。

nonsectarian这个词里的关键问题是弄明白secsect的意思。

sec, soc, secu, sequ 跟随

印欧词根形式为 *sekw- ‘to follow’

sect [ sekt]

(sec 跟随→追随,-t 由过去分词而来的后缀;可追随的东西→追随相似观念、思想、信仰等的一些人→)

n. 派别;宗派;(尤指宗教的)

sectarian 英 [sekˈteəriən] 美 [sekˈteriən]

(见上,-arian …派的(人))

a. [usually before noun] (often disapproving) connected with the differences that exist between groups of people who have different religious views

a.(宗教)教派的,派性的

sectarian violence

sectarian views

Sectarian politics are ruining the country's economy.

19. nonsectarian 英 [nɒnsek'teərɪən] 美 [nɒnsek'terɪrn]

(non- 无,非,不,sect派别,宗派,教派,-arian …派的(人),来自 -ary + -ian;非、无宗派的→)

a. Not limited to or associated with a particular religious denomination. 无派系的,不属于任何宗教派别的

牛津高阶和朗当均未收录,但收了sectarian(宗教教派的,派性的)。

Nonsectarian education is vital for long-term peace.


20. obsequious 英 [əbˈsi:kwiəs] 美 [ɑbˈsikwiəs, əb-]

(ob- ‘to’, sequi =sequ ‘follow’跟随, -ous characterized by具有…特性的;跟随某人的意愿的→)

a. (formal, disapproving) trying too hard to please sb, especially sb who is important: 谄媚的;巴结奉迎的;奴颜婢膝的

She is almost embarrassingly obsequious to anyone in authority.


circle, circus应该不陌生吧?不过词源上和bicyclecycle没有关系。

拉丁语里的circus意思为“圆,圆周”,circle其实来自circus的指小形式,字面意思是’ ‘small ring’ →圆,圆圈; 圈子。

circum- 则来自拉丁语circus的宾格。

circum- 表示:环绕,(在…)周围。

词根circ:环,圈。

词根loqu来自拉丁语loqui“说话,讲,论述”发音、意思都像“唠嗑”,loqui的过去分词词干是locut

21. circumlocution 英 [ˌsɜ:kəmləˈkju:ʃn] 美 [ˌsɜrkəmləˈkjuʃn]

(circum 环绕,locut说,-ion名词后缀;绕着而非直接说→)

n. [U, C] (formal) using more words than are necessary, instead of speaking or writing in a clear, direct way 迂回曲折的说法,累赘的说法

It was always when you most wanted a direct answer that Greenfield came up with a circumlocution. Politicians are experts in circumlocution.


22. loquacious 英 [ləˈkweɪʃəs] 美 [loˈkweʃəs]

(loqu说,-aci(s)来自拉丁所有格的后缀;loquaci多嘴的,饶舌的,-ous具有…的,有…特征的)

a. (formal) talking a lot = talkative 话多的;健谈的;喋喋不休的

The normally loquacious Mr O'Reilly has said little.


sole 是“单独的,独有的”;

solo 是“独奏(曲),独唱(曲),独舞”;

solitary 是“单独的,独自的;单个的;孤独的”。

拉丁语 solus 表示“单独的,独一的”,它的组合语素是soli- ‘alone’.

23. soliloquy [səˈlɪləkwi]

(soli- 单独的,loqu说,-y名词后缀;独自说即对自己说→)

n. 1. [C, U] (plural soliloquies) a speech in a play in which a character, usually alone on the stage, talks to himself or herself so that the audience knows their thoughts (尤指戏剧中的)独白(的台词),独白

  2. The act of speaking to oneself 自言自语

Hamlet's famous soliloquy, 'To be or not to be ...'


所谓navy “海军”,那是离不开“船”的,词根nav = 船,navy的字面意思是“船队”。

act 对应的词根除ag,还有ig

24. circumnavigate [ˌsɜ:kəmˈnævɪgeɪt]

(circum-环绕,nav船,ig= ag =drive,与act同源,-ate使成为,使形成,navigate 驾驶船→航行)

vt. 1. (formal) to sail all the way around sth, especially all the way around the world 环绕…航行;(尤指)环绕地球航行

  2. to move around something in order to avoid hitting it 绕行;避开

For this year at least, our race to circumnavigate the globe in less than 80 days is over.

Manufacturers and shops circumnavigate (= avoid) gun laws by providing realistic models which are unable to discharge missiles.


如果认识pure,知道词根ag,前缀ex-,猜expurgate就毫无压力了:

25. expurgate 英 [ˈekspəgeɪt] 美 [ˈekspərgeɪt]

(ex- out, pur=pure纯的; 纯净的 + g=ag ‘to drive, make’ → purg 使纯净→清除,除去,删除,-ate以…处理;使清除出去、删除出去→)

vt. [usually passive] (formal) to remove or leave out parts of a piece of writing or a conversation when printing or reporting it, because you think those parts could offend people 删除…中的不当之处;略去…中的不雅之处

The book was expurgated to make it suitable for children.